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Vinnie Ream (1847 – 1914)

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Vinnie Ream was a sculptor who is best known for her statue of Abraham Lincoln that stands in the rotunda of the United States Capitol in Washington, DC.

Vinnie Ream was born near Madison, Wisconsin, on September 25, 1847, the youngest of three children born to Robert and Lavinia Ream. As a child, Vinnie moved frequently because her father was a land surveyor.

In 1854, when the family moved to Kansas, Vinnie was sent to school in St. Joseph, Missouri. Three years later she attended Christian College in Columbia, Missouri, where her musical and artistic abilities caught the attention of James S. Rollins, a local lawyer, politician, and supporter of the school. Ream’s encounter with Rollins proved fruitful in the years to follow.

In 1858 Vinnie rejoined her parents in Fort Smith, Arkansas. By this time Robert Ream no longer worked as a land surveyor, and his efforts to find another job proved futile. In an attempt to find employment, the Reams moved to Washington, DC in 1861.

Photograph of Vinnie Ream (1847–1914) Ream with Lincoln bust Vinnie Ream was the first woman and the youngest individual to receive a federal art commission when she was chosen to create a statue of Lincoln for the U.S. Capitol.


[The State Historical Society of Missouri, Photograph Collection (015057)]
The Ream family found the nation’s capital transformed by the upheaval of the Civil War
The Civil War was a military conflict that began on April 12, 1861, when Southern forces fired on Fort Sumter outside of Charleston, South Carolina. Several Southern states had seceded from the United States (also known as the Union) and formed the Confederate States of America (also referred to as the Confederacy) out of fear that the United States' newly elected president, Abraham Lincoln, would not allow the expansion of slavery into new western states. Battles and skirmishes were fought throughout the country by Union and Confederate forces. General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union General Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox, Virginia, on April 9, 1865. As other Confederate forces heard the news of Lee's surrender, they surrendered as well and the war was soon over. Over half a million men were killed or wounded in the war. Thousands of former slaves gained their freedom. After the war, the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments to the Constitution were passed prohibiting slavery, providing equal protection for all citizens, and barring federal and state governments from denying citizens the right to vote due to their race, color, or status as a former slave.
. Federal troops jammed the streets, army engineers feverishly worked on defense fortifications, and military hospitals were flooded with wounded and dying soldiers.

Due to failing health, Robert Ream could only work part-time. To support her family, Vinnie began working at the post office for $50 a month. Despite her lifelong dreams of becoming an artist, and specifically a sculptor, Vinnie had never seen real statues. She only read about sculpture and looked at pictures of statues in books. After moving to Washington she spent much of her free time studying statues at the U.S. Capitol and in public squares.

While in Washington, Ream reestablished contact with James S. Rollins, who was now a U.S. Congressman. Rollins remembered Vinnie’s desire to become a sculptor, and he took her to visit Clark Mills, one of the country’s most prominent sculptors. Mills offered Ream the opportunity to work in his studio. Her artistic talents blossomed under Mills’s instruction. Ream accepted commissions to create portrait busts of prominent individuals and was soon earning enough money to quit her job at the post office.

Exhausted Vinnie Ream An Exhausted Vinnie Ream Vinnie Ream is shown resting in her studio at the U.S. Capitol in Washington, DC. Ream worked tirelessly on her model of Lincoln, but her work was often interrupted by a steady stream of visitors and onlookers who wanted to see the young female sculptor in action.

[Christian College, Columbia, Missouri, Records, 1836-1986 (C0038), The State Historical Society of Missouri, Manuscript Collection-Columbia]

Ambitious and confident in her artistic ability, Ream wanted to sculpt a portrait bust of President Abraham Lincoln. She asked Congressman Rollins to help her obtain the president’s permission to sculpt a clay model while he worked in his office. Rollins was successful and Ream became a frequent visitor to the White House where she spent a half-hour each day for five months working on a clay model of the president’s likeness.

Ream was almost finished with her model when President Lincoln was assassinated. She was deeply affected by his death and later recalled, “He had been painted and modeled before, but when he learned that I was poor, he granted me the sittings for no other purpose than that I was a poor girl. Had I been the greatest sculptor in the world, I am sure that he would have refused at that time.”

Ream's sculpture of Abraham Lincoln Sculpture of President Lincoln Vinnie Ream’s completed statue of President Abraham Lincoln stands in the U.S. Capitol in Washington, D.C. She chose to portray Lincoln holding the Emancipation Proclamation.


[The State Historical Society of Missouri, Photograph Collection (015060)]

After Lincoln’s death, Congress offered a $10,000 commission for the creation of a statue of the late president. The country’s best sculptors competed for the commission. Ream, confident in her artistic skill, was among those who vied for the work and money award.

Senators Charles Sumner and Jacob Howard were skeptical of Ream’s ability. In a debate on the Senate floor, Sumner objected to her lack of experience, arguing she “has never made a statue in her life.” Senator Howard expressed his belief that because Ream was a woman she would be “a complete failure in the execution of this work.”

The majority of their colleagues, however, disagreed and on July 28, 1866, eighteen-year-old Vinnie Ream was awarded the commission. She was both the first woman and the youngest individual to receive a federal art commission. Ream became famous. Visitors crowded into her studio in the U.S. Capitol to watch as she worked on the model of the statue. Among those who visited Ream’s studio were General Ulysses S. Grant, suffragist Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and photographer Mathew Brady.

Bingham's painting of Vinnie Ream (1847–1914) Portrait of Vinnie Ream
by George Caleb Bingham
Missouri artist George Caleb Bingham painted two portraits of Vinnie Ream. This portrait belongs to The State Historical Society of Missouri and the other one can be found at the Wisconsin Historical Society.

[The State Historical Society of Missouri Art Collection, Accession 1929-0001]

Ream received $5,000 for completing the model. She used the money to travel to Rome and was able to oversee the carving of the marble sculpture of Lincoln. After six months, the sculpture was finished and Ream returned to the United States.

On January 25, 1871, Lincoln’s statue was dedicated. President Ulysses S. Grant, members of Congress, and other dignitaries were in attendance. Ream received an additional $5,000 for the completed statue.

She continued to work as an artist in Washington, DC and was a popular figure in Washington society. Known for her charm, she received numerous marriage proposals. One of her admirers was Missouri artist George Caleb Bingham who was so taken with Ream that he painted her portrait twice.

Vinnie Ream and Son Vinnie Ream with Son Vinnie loved to play the harp. After her death, her harp was given to the Wisconsin Historical Society. She is shown here with her son, Richard R. Hoxie.


[Christian College, Columbia, Missouri, Records, 1836-1986 (C0038), The State Historical Society of Missouri, Manuscript Collection-Columbia]

In 1872 Ream won a commission to sculpt a statue of Admiral David Farragut. It was her last major work as an artist. After Vinnie Ream’s marriage to U.S. Army Lieutenant Richard L. Hoxie in 1878, Hoxie persuaded her to give up her artistic career. At the time it would have been considered improper for a married woman of Vinnie’s social status to work as an artist. Together the couple had one son, Richard.

After twenty years, Ream once again began sculpting, though she never again experienced the success of her youth. Vinnie Ream died of uremic poisoning
Uremic poisoning occurs when there are too many toxins in an individual's bloodstream. It is caused by kidney failure.
on November 20, 1914, in Washington, DC.
Text and research by Kimberly Harper

Meets Show-Me Standards SS: 2, 6, 7; 4th grade GLE 2a.A.

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References and Resources

For more information about Vinnie Ream's life and career, see the following resources:

Society Resources

The following is a selected list of books, articles, and manuscripts about Vinnie Ream in the research centers of The State Historical Society of Missouri. The Society’s call numbers follow the citations in brackets. All links will open in a new tab.


  • Article in the Missouri Historical Review
  • Articles from the Newspaper Collection
    • “Death Notice of Vinnie Ream Hoxie.” University Missourian. November 22, 1914. p. 1.
    • “Fame Came to Columbia Girl Who Modeled Bust of Lincoln.” Columbia Missourian. February 11, 1928. p. 1.
    • “A Homely Woman’s Opinion of a Pretty One.” Liberty Tribune. September 14, 1866, p. 1.
    • “Life Sketch at Death.” University Missourian. December 18, 1922. p. 8.
    • “Miss Lavinia Ream Participated in a Christmas Program.” Columbia Missouri Statesman. December 25, 1857. p. 2.
    • “Miss Vinnie Ream was Educated at Christian Female College in Columbia.” Columbia Statesman. August 2, 1872. p. 2.
    • “Miss Vinnie Ream is Modeling Busts in New York.” Columbia Statesman. November 1, 1872. p. 3.
    • “Vinnie Ream gets $10,000 to do a Marble Statue of Lincoln.” Columbia Statesman. August 17, 1866. p. 3.
    • “Vinnie Ream presented Christian College with portrait of Martha Washington.” Columbia Missourian. July 22, 1926. p. 5.
  • Books and Articles
    • Christensen, Lawrence O., William E. Foley, Gary R. Kremer, and Kenneth H. Winn, eds. Dictionary of Missouri Biography. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1999. pp. 638-640. [REF F508 D561]
    • Cooper, Edward S. Vinnie Ream: An American Sculptor. Chicago: Academy Chicago Publishers, 2004. [REF F508.1 R23co]
    • Holzer, Harold and Lloyd Ostendorf. “Vinnie Ream: The Girl Who Sculpted Lincoln.” Civil War Times Illustrated v. 21, no. 3 (May 1982), p. 26-33 [REF 973.7 C4997 v.21]
    • Juhl, Paul C. A Curious Iowa Connection: Vinnie Ream and the Statue of Samuel Kirkwood. Iowa City: Brushy Creek Publishing, 2011. [REF F508.1 R23j]
    • Sherwood, Glenn V. Labor of Love: The Life and Art of Vinnie Ream. Hygiene, CO: SunShine Press, 1997. [REF F508.1 R23sh]
  • Manuscript Collection
    • Ream, Mary, Letter, 1862 (C0932)
      A letter from Vinnie Ream’s sister Mary Ream to B. Frank Venable, Jefferson City, Missouri, from Washington, D.C., June 1, 1862. The letter expresses concern over her brother Robert, who is under the command of General Beauregard; speaks of daily visits of James S. Rollins, friend of her sister Vinnie; and refers to lack of gaiety and dances in Washington.
    • Rollins, James S. (1812-1888), Papers, 1546-1968 (C1026)
      This collection includes correspondence from Vinnie Ream to U.S. Congressman James S. Rollins.

Outside Resources

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Historic Missourians: Vinnie Ream
Vinnie Ream (1847 – 1914)Vinnie Ream was famous for her trademark long curls throughout her life.

[The State Historical Society of Missouri, Photograph Collection (015053)]

Vinnie Ream

Born: September 25, 1847
Died: November 20, 1914 (age 67)
Categories: Artists, Women
Regions of Missouri: Northwest, Central
Missouri Hometowns: St. Joseph, Columbia