Josephine Baker (1906 - 1975)
The United States provided aid to the Allied Powers but remained neutral until Japan launched a surprise attack on the U.S. Navy's Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, on December 7, 1941. The United States then declared war on Japan and, in turn, Germany declared war on the United States. The United States joined the Allied Powers and launched an enormous war effort at home and abroad. On the home front, civilians made important contributions by helping to produce military equipment, supplies, and food in record amounts. American military forces fought in Europe, North Africa, and throughout the Pacific against the Axis Powers. By the end of the war, over twelve million Americans had served in the armed forces.
On May 7, 1945, Germany surrendered, bringing an end to the war in Europe. The war in the Pacific continued until the United States dropped two atomic bombs on Japan in early August 1945. The Japanese surrendered on August 14, 1945. By the end of the war, over 418,500 American servicemen were killed, and worldwide an estimated thirty-eight million people lost their lives during the war.
Born Freda Josephine McDonald, June 3, 1906, in St. Louis, Josephine escaped a life of poverty to become a theater sensation. Her mother, Carrie McDonald, was a laundress and never married Josephine's father, Eddie Carson. Josephine dropped out of school early, and she was married at the age of thirteen to Willie Wells. That marriage ended quickly, and she married again at fifteen to Will Baker in 1921. While she left that marriage also, Josephine kept his name.
After a year of performing with the Jones Family Band and the Dixie Steppers, Josephine Baker went to New York where she eventually got a part in the chorus for Shuffle Along, the first successful black musical. She went to Paris in 1925 and became famous while singing and dancing in La Revue Negre. When that show closed, she went onto perform in La Folie du Jour at the Follies-Bergere Theater and became known for her unique dancing style and outrageous costumes.
Baker’s success, in theater and in movies, continued during her time in France, and she became a French citizen after marrying Jean Lion. Her love of France was evident in her participation in the French Resistance during World War II. She was made a sublieutenant in the Women’s Auxiliary of the French Air Force and earned a medal for her work on behalf of the Allies.
Baker and her fourth husband, Jo Bouillon, lived in a French chateau they called Les Milandes with their adopted children. Baker continued to perform in order to support her large family, but she was unable to keep up with the costs of her large estate, and the bank foreclosed on her home in 1969.
This setback did not stop Baker. She continued doing what she loved: singing and dancing. A few days before her death of a cerebral hemorrhage on April 12, 1975, she had performed before a sold-out crowd in Paris. Baker was given a twenty-one gun salute at her funeral in Paris, France, and thousands of people lined the streets to honor her.
Baker became famous for her theatrical performances, but she devoted her life to the idea that people of all nationalities can live peacefully together. She fought against fascism in Europe during World War II and racism in the United States.